Unit 02 English around the word

一、语法

引语的概念

直接引述别人的原话,叫直接引语  直接引语通常都用引号括起来

用自己的话把别人的话陈述出来,叫间接引语

间接引语在多数情况下都构成一个 宾语从句

Direct Speech She said, “I like singing. ” She said, “I am waiting for a bus.”Indirect Speech She said she liked singing She said she was waiting for a bus.

总结:直接引语是陈述句,变为间接引语时用连词that引导宾语从句.从句中的人称,时态,指示代词,时间状语,地点状语等相应变化.(见课本88)

补充:

Direct Speech She asked, “Have you seen the film?” He asks, “Are you a doctor, John?” She asked us, “Where are you going to get off?” He asked them, “Who gave you a talk yesterday?”  Indirect Speech She asked me whether\if I had seen the film. He asks John if\whether he is a doctor. She asked us where we were going to get off.   He asked them who had given them a talk the day before.  

总结 直接引语是一般疑问句,变为间接引语时,用连词if或whether连接。

直接引语是特殊疑问句,变为间接引语时,仍用原来的疑问词作连词来引导。

解题步骤:

1.陈述句

“I don’t like computers,” Sarah said to her friends.

第一步Sarah said to her friends that I don’t like computers.

(    I—she   时态said 过去式  don’t —- didn’t  )

第二步Sarah said to her friends that she didn’t like computers.

2. 一般疑问句:

Is it easy to improve the condition of the soil? ( They asked him )

第一步It is easy to improve the condition of the soil.

第二步They asked him if it is easy to improve the condition of the soil.

第三步Asked过去式     is—- was

第四步They asked him if it was easy to improve the condition of the soil.

3.特殊疑问句:

When do you harvest the wheat ?( They asked him )

第一步you harvest the wheat

第二步They asked him When you harvest the wheat.

第三步(you–he)(harvest– harvested)

第四步They asked him when he harvested the wheat

二、重点语言点

1. Which country do you think has the most English learners?

[解释]do you think/believe/expect/ find/know/suppose 作为插入语,放在特殊疑问词后,其它内容紧跟其后并用陈述语序。                                         

What time do you expect we will come and pick you up?你希望我们几点来接你?

What do you suppose he will do after he hears about the good news?

你认为他听到那个好消息后会做什么呢?

Why do you think their team could win the football match? 你认为他们队为什么能赢得那场足球赛呢?

2. Today, more people speak English as their first, second or a foreign language than ever before.

[解释] than ever before 常与比较级连用,意为“比以往任何时候更”。如:

The stars were shining brightly in the dark sky, and the night was more beautiful than ever before. 繁星点缀在夜空里,夜晚比以往更美。

[练习] 中译英

1). 简看起来比以前漂亮多了。 2). 雨下得比以前更大。

答案:

1). Jane looks much prettier than ever before.

2). It’s raining harder than ever before.

拓展:(1)引导让步状语从句的引导词还有 although, though, no matter when/what…, whenever, wherever, however 等等。

(2)as也可以引导让步状语从句,但要把其表语、谓语或宾语前置,且前置的单数名词不可以加冠词。

①Even though you achieve great success in your work, you should not be conceited.

即使你们在工作中取得了巨大的成绩,也不应该自满。

②Whatever you do, do it well.

不管你做什么,把它做好。

③However hot it is, he won’t take off his hat.

不管多热,他都不摘下帽子。

④Girl as she is, she can go alone in the darkness.

尽管她是个女孩,她敢一个人走夜路。

[即境活用1] (2007·浙江)Many of them turned a deaf ear to his advice, ______they knew it to be valuable.

A.as if  B.now that    C.even though       D.so that

解析:even though=even if “即使”,引导让步状语从句。

答案:C

2.Believe it or not, there is no such thing as standard English. 信不信由你,(世界上)没有什么标准英语。

(1)believe it or not 信不信由你。常在句中做插入语。

(2)no such thing 没有这样的事情。such与 all, no, some, any, few, little, many, much, several, one 等词连用时,应位于它们的后面。

①Believe it or not, he refused to accept our offer.

信不信由你,他拒绝接受我们的帮助。

②There is no such street in the city.

这城市没有那样的街道。

③He said he didn’t have time or made some such excuse.

他说他没有时间或别的诸如此类的借口。

[即境活用2] (2009·安徽)I’m amazed to hear from my school teacher again. ______, it is ten years since we met last.

A.In a word              B.What’s more   C.That’s to say               D.Believe it or not

解析:句意:想不到又一次收到学校老师的来信,信不信由你,我们上次见面还是在十年前。in a word总之;what’s more而且;that’s to say也就是说;believe it or not信不信由你。

答案:D

3. with的复合结构

[应用3] (1)—Come on, please give me some ideas about the project.

—Sorry. With so much work ______ my mind, I almost break down.

A.filled             B.filling    C.to fill             D.being filled

解析:with复合结构中,work和fill是主动关系,且表示正在进行,因此其后要用doing结构。

答案:B

(2)John received an invitation to dinner, and with his work ______, he gladly accepted it.

A.finished  B.finishing  C.having finished            D.was finished

解析:根据work和finish是被动关系,可以判断出答案。

答案:A

三、词汇

1. present n. 礼物adj. 在场的;目前的vt. 赠送 

[典例]

1). The mountain bike is a birthday present from my parents.这辆山地自行车是父母给我的生日礼物。

2). I am afraid I can’t help you at present. 恐怕现在我没法帮助你。

3). In the present case, I advise you to wait. 按照目前的情况,我建议你等等。

 [重点用法]

at present=at the present time=now 目前,现在

be present at 出席;到场(反义: be absent from)

present sb.with sth = present sth. to sb.把某物送给某人

  •  All the people ____________________ (出席晚会的)were her supporters.

[练习] 中译英

1). 所有(那些)在场者一眼就看出那个错误。

2). 这本书是哥哥赠送给我的。

答案: 1). The mistake was obvious to all (those) present. 

2). This book was a present from my brother.

2. command n.& v. 命令;指令;掌握

1). The officer commanded his soldiers to fire.  那名军官命令士兵们开火。

[重点用法]

command sb. to do sth 命令某人做某事   be under the command of 由…指挥,由…控制

be in command of     控制…    be at one’s command 听任某人支配

have / take command of…  指挥…

[特别提醒]   command后接that从句时要用虚拟语气

[练习] 用适当的介词填空

1). For the first time in years, she felt ______ command of her life.

2). The army is __________ the king’s direct command.

3). The police arrived and took command ________ the situation.

答案: 1). in   2). under  3).  of

3. request n.& v. 请求;要求

[典例] 1). Your requests will be granted. 你的请求能够获准。.

2). I requested him to help. 我请求他帮忙。

[重点用法]

request sb.to do sth.要求某人做某事

request that sb (should) do 要求某人做某事

⑴ He requested me  ________ (write) a letter of recommendation.

⑵ He requested that I  ________________(write) a letter of recommendation.

⑶ The passengers _____________(request) to show their passports.

 [练习] 中译英。

1). 我是(特别)应你要求而来。   2). 请不要吸烟。

答案: 1). I came at your (special) request.     2). You are (kindly) requested not to smoke.

扩展===联想:像command一样,其后的名词性从句的谓语用“(should)+ 动词原形”的常用词有:

一个“坚持(insist)”;

两个“命令(order,command)”;

三个“建议(suggest,advise,propose)”;

四个“要求(demand,ask,require,request)”;

4. recognize vt. 辨认出;承认;公认

[典例]

1). I recognized her by her red hat. 我根据她的红色帽子认出了她。

2). Everyone recognized him to be the lawful heir/as the lawful heir. 大家都承认他为合法继承人。

[重点用法]

recognize…by sth 认出或识别某人/某事物    recognize…as sth 承认某人/某事物是

recognize…to be承认…是  recognize +宾语从句 意识到;承认

⑴I recognize him______________________. (他是个聪明人).

⑵Though they hadn’t met for many years,they _________ (认出了对方)at the first sight.

[练习] 中译英 1). 人们都承认他是他们理所当然的领袖。

2). 我认出他是我朋友的哥哥。

答案:  1). He is recognized to be their natural leader.

2). I recognized him as my friend’s brother.

5. straight adj.笔直的;正直的 adv. 直接;挺直

[典例]   1). This is a straight road. 这是一条直路。

2). She went straight from school to university. 她中学一毕业就马上进了大学。

[练习]  中译英1).我的领带系得正不正?2). 一直往前看。

答案:  1). Is my tie straight?  2). Look straight ahead.

6. block vt. 堵塞;阻碍n. 街区;木块;石块

[典例]  1). He lives three blocks away from here. 他住的地方与此处相隔三条街.

2). A large crowd blocked the corridors and exits. 人群把走廊和出口都堵死了

[重点用法]

a block of 一大块   block out 堵住   block off 封锁;封闭   block up 堵塞;阻碍

[练习] 中译英

1). 他们在绕楼群散步。2). 大雪阻塞了所有通往苏格兰的道路。

答案:1). They are taking a walk round the block.

2). Heavy snow is blocking all roads into Scotland.

7、actually adv. 实际上;事实上

相近词汇:in fact\as a matter of fact

8.gradual adj.逐渐的,逐步的→gradually adv.逐渐地,逐步地

9..native adj. 本地的,出生地的;天赋的

n. 本地人;出生于某国的人

be native to… 原产于某地

one’s native country/land 本国,祖国

native place 出生地

one’s native language 本国语,本族语,母语

a native of 当地人/产于……的动/植物

[即学即练1] (1)China is our ____________, and Chinese is our ____________.

中国是我们的祖国,汉语是我们的母语。

(2)The tiger __________________ India.

这种虎产于印度。

(3)He is __________________ Beijing.他是北京人。

答案.native country; native language;is native to;a native of


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