Unit 01 Friendship

一、语法

直接引语和间接引语

1. 直接引语在改为间接引语时,时态需要做相应的调整。
eg: “I broke your CD player.” (一般过去时改成过去完成时)
He told me he had broken my CD player.
Jenny said, “I have lost a book.”
(现在完成时改成过去完成时)
Jenny said she had lost a book.
Mum said, “I’ll go to see a friend.”
(一般将来时改成过去将来时)
Mum said she would go to see a friend.
过去完成时保留原有的时态
He said, “We hadn’t finished our homework.”
He said they hadn’t finished their homework.
注意 直接引语是客观真理,过去进行时,时态不变。


2. 在直接引语变间接引语时,如果从句中的主语时第一人称或被第一人称所修饰,从句中的人称要按照主句中主语的人称变化。如:
Mary said, “My brother is an engineer.”
Mary said her brother was and engineer.


3. 直接引语如果是反意疑问句,选择疑问句或一般疑问句,间接引语应改为由whether或if引导的宾语从句。如:
He said, “Can you run, Mike?”
He asked Mike whether/if he could run.


4. 直接引语如果是祈使句,间接引语应改为“tell(ask, order, beg等) *   (not) to do sth.”句型。如:
“Pass me the water, please.”said he.
He asked him to pass her the water.


5. 直接引语如果是以“Let’s”开头的祈使句,变为间接引语时,通常用“suggest+动名词或从句”的结构。如:
She said, “Let’s go to the cinema.”
She suggested going to the cinema.
或She suggested that they should go to the cinema.


二、语言点


1. be good for 对……有益;be bad to…/be bad for…
I will be good to other people.我会善良的对待其他人.
It would be good for you to spend a holiday in the sun. 在有阳光的地方度假会给你带来很多好处。
The Olympics will be good for business. 奥运会的召开将有利于商业的发展。
be good at 擅长make good 有成就;成功as good as 实际上;几乎等于
a good deal 许多,大量 彻底的;完全的;痛快的to have a good drink 喝个痛快


2. add up to 合计,总计
add… to 把……加到…… add to 增加
Add up your score and see how many points you get? 把你的分数加起来,看看得多少?
Some people can add up quite easily in their heads, but not all.
Good friends do not add up what they do for each other; instead they offer help when it is needed.
The figures add up to 270. 这些数字加起来是270。
You shouldn’t add fuel to the flame 你不应该火上加油
Fireworks added to the attraction of the festival night. 焰火使节日的夜晚更加生色。
The bad weather added to the shipwrecked sailors’ difficulties.恶劣的天气增加了失事船只的船员们的困难。

3. Your friend can not go until he finishes cleaning his bike.
not…until/till 意思是“直到…才”,表示主句谓语所表示的动作直到until状语所表示的时间才发生,主句的谓语动词表示的是动作的开始,动词既可以是延续性的,也可以是非延续性的。
They did not come back until eleven. 他们会在十一点后回来。
I did not notice it until yesterday.我一直到昨天才注重到它。

4. You had to pay to get it repaired
get sth done 使……完成/让某人做某事

5. You will ignore the bell and go somewhere quiet to calm your friend down.
I said hello to her, but she ignored me completely!
calm …down使平息, 使平静
calm down平息/平静下来
The crying child soon calmed down.哭闹的小孩不多一会就安静下来。
It was a long time before he managed to calm himself down. 过了很久他才努力使自己冷静下来。
We tried to calm him down, but he kept crying.
我们试图让他平静下来,但他仍不停地哭着。

6. Tell your friend that you are concerned about him. be concerned about关心,挂念
He was very concerned about his children’s education. 他很关心他儿子的教育。
Please don’t be concerned about me.请别为我操心。
Why is she so concerned about his attitude to her work? 她为什么那么关注他对她的工作的看法?

7. Your friend has gone on holiday and asked you to take care of his dog.
go on holiday 度假
be on holiday 正在休假
What fun it will be when we all go on holiday together.我们大家一起去度假那可太有意思了.
take care of 爱护,照料
take care 注意,当心
You are not (physically) strong, so you may as well take care of your health. 你的体格不壮,因此最好注意健康。

8. While walking the dog, you were careless and it got loose. 在遛狗的时候,你一粗心松开了手中的狗链。
当while, when, before, after 等引导的时间状语从句中的主语与主句的主语一致时,可将从句中的主语和be动词省去。
walk sb home/ to a place: 为保证安全而陪某人去某地 It’s late —- let me walk you home.


9. take one’s end-of-term exam参加期末考试


10. Your friend, who doesn’t work hard, asks you to help him cheat in the end-of-term exam.(非限制性定语从句)
cheat in the exam 考试作弊


11. look at someone else’s paper 看别人的试卷


12. make a list of reasons 列举一些原因


13. Do you want a friend whom you could tell everything to, like your deepest feelings and thoughts? 你想有一位无话不谈、能推心置腹的朋友吗?


14. go through遭遇;经历;熬过;用光(钱);获准,通过
It can go through the test of the time. 它能经受时间的考验.
She knew that she had got to go through all the difficulties with her family.
He would go through fire and water for his country. 他愿为国家赴汤蹈火。

15. hide away 躲藏;隐藏


16. I don’t want to set down a series of facts in a diary as most people do,…我不愿像大多数人一样在日记中记流水账,……
Why don’t you set your ideas down on paper?
We have had a series of stormy days when we were on the island.
The police asked him to set down what he had seen in a report. 警察让他在报告中写下他所看见的事情。
I wonder if it’s because I haven’t been able to be outdoors for so long that I’ve grown so crazy about everything to do with nature. 我不知道这是不是因为我长久无法出门的缘故,我变得对一切与大自然有关的事物都无比狂热。


17. I can well remember that there was a time when a deep blue sky, the song of birds, moonlight and flowers could never have kept me spellbound.我记得非常清楚,曾有一段时间,湛蓝的天空、鸟儿的歌唱、月光和鲜花,从未使我心醉神迷过。


18. I stayed awake on purpose until half past eleven one evening in order to have a good look at the moon for once by myself.
有一天晚上,我熬到11点半故意不睡觉,为的是独自好好看看月亮一次。

19. But as the moon gave far too much light, I didn’t dare open a window.但是因为月光太亮了,我不敢打开窗户。
She speaks French far better than I, so I don’t dare talk with her in French.


20. I happened to be upstairs at dusk when the window was open. 黄昏时我碰巧在楼上,那时窗户是开着的。
sth happen to sb 某人发生某事
sb happen to do sth 某人碰巧做某事; 正巧 it so happened that …
It happened that he was seen by his father. = He happened to be seen by his father.
他碰巧被他父亲看见了。
As I was about to go out and search for him, he happened to come in. 正当我打算出去找他时,他恰巧进来。
The street lights go on at dusk. 街上的路段在傍晚时分亮起来。


21. It was the first time in a year and a half that I had seen the night face to face. 这是我一年半以来第一次目睹夜晚。
It is the first (second…etc) that… (从句谓语动词用现在完成时)
It was the first (second…etc) that… (从句谓语动词用过去完成时)
the first time 可作从属连词用,引导时间状语从句。The first time I saw her, my heart stopped.
It was the first time that I talked with a foreigner face to face.
I think we need a face-to-face talk so as to clear the misunderstanding.
I have often heard of her. Actually, I’ve never met her face to face.

22. in one’s power 处于……的控制之中
I have got him in my power. I can ask him to do anything I want. 我控制了他,我可以让他为我做任何事。

23. It’s no pleasure looking through these any longer because nature is one thing that really must be experienced.观看这些已不再是乐趣,因为大自然是你必须亲身体验的。
It’s no good/ use doing sth. 做某事时没用的。

24. She found it difficult to settle and calm down in the hiding place.

25. suffer from 患…病; 受…苦痛;遭受
Most of the important cities of the world suffer from traffic jam. 世界上大多数大城市都交通堵塞为患。

26. It was such fun to watch it run loose in the park.

27. I’ve got tired of looking nature through dirty curtains and dusty windows.

28. I need to pack up my things in the suitcase very quickly.

29. Mum asked her if she was very hot with so many clothes on.
with+名词/代词(宾格)+分词/形容词/介词短语/不定式/副词在句中常作伴随状语。动词形式的选择取决于宾语同动词之间的逻辑关系。
The murderer was brought in, with his hands tied behind his back.

30. have some trouble with sb or sth. 在……上遇到了麻烦
I have some trouble with my studies.

31. get along … with sb/sth. 与某人相处怎样/某事进展如何?
If you have some trouble (in) getting along with your friends, you can write to the editor and ask for advice. 如果你在和朋友的相处上有问题,你可以写信给编辑向他征求建议。

32. This has made me angry.
…he made her diary her best friend…
make 后接复合宾语,宾语补足语须用不带to 的不定式、形容词、过去分词、名词等。常见的有以下几种形式:
make sb. do sth.让(使)某人做某事。He was made to repeat it.(注意在被动句中,不定式前要加to)
make sb. /sth. +adj.使某人/物…We should do our best to make our country stronger and more beautiful.
make sb./ oneself +v-ed 让某人/自己被…When you speak, you should make yourself understood.
make sb.+n. 使某人成为…
make it n. /adj.+(for sb.) to do sth. We made him leader of our team. (注意表示职位的名词前不加冠词)
He made it easy for us to understand the text.

33. I’m not good at communicating with people.

34. Although I tried to talk to my classmates, I still found it hard to make friends with them.

35. I do want to change this situation, but I don’t know how.

36. Mr. Jones lives alone and often feels lonely. 琼斯先生单独一人生活,常常感到孤独。

37. I would be grateful if you could give me some advice.? ?如果您给我提些建议,我会非常感谢的。??(I would be grateful if…??委婉客气提出请求)

38. join in discussions and show interest in other people’s ideas

39. It’s a good habit for you to keep a diary.? ?记日记对你来说是个好习惯。

40. Why not have a try?

41.True friends are like wine; the older, the better.

42. People are told that their actions should be as gentle as the wind that blows from the sea.

43. A friend in need is a friend indeed


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